Smartcard readers that use the OpenSC PCSC daemon in order to work may no longer work after upgrading your Mac OSX to Mavericks (10.9). This is because of a problem that occurs with the PCSCD after the upgrade. Affected card readers are all that use this daemon for its communication. Examples are most ACR38U-based card readers, certain Vasco DIGIPASS readers, and some others.
The solution is to re-install the PCSCD package, which will fix corruption and make sure the daemon is started properly, enabling the card reader again.